Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a nonspecific kidney disorder, commonly caused by minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and membranous nephropathy (MN).
Here we analyzed urinary protein profiles, aiming to discover disease-specific biomarkers of these three common diseases in NS.
As a specimen, urine has several advantages compared with serum or plasma.
Urine can be collected easily and non-invasively, and is free from other components that can interfere with blood analysis, such as clotting factors, active enzymes, and immunoregulatory proteins.
Two sets of urines from different cohorts were collected for discovery and validation set.
While almost all patients with MCD sustain their renal function for their lifetime, two-thirds of patients with MN progress to end-stage renal disease within 5–15 years, and about half of patients with FSGS who do not respond to steroid treatment will eventually require renal replacement therapy .
To date, no reports describe biomarkers that can differentiate between common causative three diseases (MCD, MN, FSGS) in adult NS.
In our present study, we used multiple affinity removal system (MARS) for removing 14 high abundance proteins and analyzed urine proteins with the aim of discovering disease-specific biomarkers of NS.
When a regression model was applied, receiver operating characteristic analysis clearly discriminated MCD from the other causative diseases in NS.
We developed a disease-specific protein panel that discriminated between three main causes of NS.